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Nya rikedomar betalas med luft och vatten

Mycket i världen går framåt: fattigdom minskar och rikedom ökar när internationell handel växer. Men om vi också räknar med effekter på luft och vatten blir det mer problematiskt. Det skriver Karin Bojs i en krönika i DN.

I ett aktuellt nummer av tidskriften Nature har två forskargrupper gjort sådana beräkningar. De visar hur luftföroreningar, hälsoproblem och sjunkande grundvatten följer i den internationella exportens spår. Carole Dalin på University College London och hennes medförfattare har tittat på grundvatten. I många av världens torra och halvtorra områden sjunker grundvattnet i alarmerande hastighet. Det visar bland annat observationer av rymdsatelliter, såsom Nasas satellit Grace.

Att grundvattnet sjunker beror till stor del på konstbevattning. Och de grödor som bevattnas går ofta på export. Det handlar, i nämnd ordning, främst om export av vete, ris, socker, bomull och majs. Faktum är att de flesta män­niskor i världen bor i länder – däribland Sverige – som importerar mat och bomull från områden där grundvattnet överutnyttjas.

Forskarna efterlyser fler åtgärder, såsom att bättre mäta vatten­åtgång, att göra bevattningar mer effektiva och att använda mer torktåliga sorters grödor. Och länder som importerar de vattenslukande grödorna kan gott vara med och finansiera sådana projekt, i stället för att bara blunda för problemet, anser de.

Läs mer om detta i Dagens Nyheter.

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