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”Life at the water’s edge” – varför vi behöver våtmarker

1985 startade IUCN tillsammans med WWF en stor våtmarkskampanj som hette ”Life at the Water’s Edge”. Kampanjens syfte var att visa det enorma behovet av att skydda planetens våtmarker. Nu är det dags att ta nya tag och regeringen har satsat stora pengar på att bättra Sveriges våtmarker. 

Våtmarker är nämligen multifunktionella. De levererar viktiga ekosystemtjänster som att binda och lagra kol, rena vatten, fungera som översvämningsskydd och bidra med biologisk produktion.

För hundra år sedan upptogs stora delar av Sveriges idag rika jordbruksbygder av våtmarker. Genom målmedveten satsning på utdikning och dränering har dessa våtmarker i stort sett försvunnit. Förlusten av våtmarker har lett till en utarmning av landskapet som gör det mer sårbart på flera sätt. Den biologiska mångfalden har utarmats och läckaget av närsalter, främst kväve, har ökat med övergödning i kustnära hav som följd.

Forskningen har på olika sätt visat hur man kan utnyttja våtmarker som ett verktyg i miljöarbetet. Genom att skapa eller restaurera våtmarker erhålls olika nyttigheter för samhället – ekosystemtjänster.

Bland annat Polen börjar fler och fler jord­bru­ka­re istället se de eko­no­mis­ka, eko­lo­gis­ka och kli­mats­mar­ta för­de­lar­na med att odla i blötare områden. Våt­mar­ker­na huserar dessutom hem för ett stort antal fåglar och insekter, arter som idag minskar på grund av färre lev­nads­om­rå­den.

Den här livsmil­jön är perfekt för fåglar eftersom vassen reglerar vat­ten­ni­vå­er och klipps ner varje år,  säger Marek Dylawerski, en lokal tjäns­te­man för få­gel­skydd i norra Polen till The Guardian. – Det är sista chansen att rädda kritiskt hotade arter som Vat­tensång­a­ren i den här delen av Europa. Nästa häck­nings­plats är 700 km mot öst.

Pa­lu­di­kul­tur, att odla bär, svamp, ris, vass för biobräns­le eller andra våt­mark­säls­kan­de växter är betydligt bättre för klimatet och miljön jämfört med att dränera våt­mar­ker­na. Vassen är ett kol­di­ox­ids­nålt al­ter­na­tiv för energi och kan även användas som isolering i hus.

Just våtmarker är bland världens mest pro­duk­ti­va områden. Förutom för­de­lar­na med att odla anpassade grödor och bevara den bi­o­lo­gis­ka mång­fal­den står alltså även jord­klo­tets våtmarker för stor del av vår vat­ten­re­ning, hjälper till att begränsa kli­mat­för­änd­ring­ar­na och att reglera grund­vatt­net. I tropiska länder används även våt­mar­ker­na för fiske och jakt.

bland annat Polen börjar fler och fler jord­bru­ka­re istället se de eko­no­mis­ka, eko­lo­gis­ka och kli­mats­mar­ta för­de­lar­na med att odla i blötare områden. Våt­mar­ker­na huserar dessutom hem för ett stort antal fåglar och insekter, arter som idag minskar på grund av färre lev­nads­om­rå­den.

Den här livsmil­jön är perfekt för fåglar eftersom vassen reglerar vat­ten­ni­vå­er och klipps ner varje år,  säger Marek Dylawerski, en lokal tjäns­te­man för få­gel­skydd i norra Polen till The Guardian. – Det är sista chansen att rädda kritiskt hotade arter som Vat­tensång­a­ren i den här delen av Europa. Nästa häck­nings­plats är 700 km mot öst.

Pa­lu­di­kul­tur, att odla bär, svamp, ris, vass för biobräns­le eller andra våt­mark­säls­kan­de växter är betydligt bättre för klimatet och miljön jämfört med att dränera våt­mar­ker­na. Vassen är ett kol­di­ox­ids­nålt al­ter­na­tiv för energi och kan även användas som isolering i hus.

Just våtmarker är bland världens mest pro­duk­ti­va områden. Förutom för­de­lar­na med att odla anpassade grödor och bevara den bi­o­lo­gis­ka mång­fal­den står alltså även jord­klo­tets våtmarker för stor del av vår vat­ten­re­ning, hjälper till att begränsa kli­mat­för­änd­ring­ar­na och att reglera grund­vatt­net. I tropiska länder används även våt­mar­ker­na för fiske och jakt.

Ekosystemtjänster som våtmarker erbjuder är:

Klimatanpassning: Mer översvämningar och längre torkor kräver våtmarker.

Vattenrening: Våtmarker reducerar kväve och fosfor men också t.ex. tungmetaller och miljögifter. Våtmarker tar hand om diffusa utsläpp från t.ex. jordbruket men fungerar även som ett steg i avloppsvattenrening.

Biologisk mångfald: Våtmarker ökar den biologiska mångfalden i landskapet. Våtmarkerna används, tillfälligt eller permanent, av många olika arter för t.ex. födosök, förökning eller som rastplats.

Vattenmagasinering: Våtmarker kan bidra till att jämna ut flödesvariationer. Vatten som magasineras i våtmarker kan utnyttjas för t.ex. bevattning.

Livskvalitet: Våtmarker kan vara till direkt glädje för oss. Exempel är friluftsliv, sportfiske, jakt, fågelskådning, naturupplevelser, landskapsbilden, turism, skola och undervisning.

Produktion och resursåtervinning: Våtmarker erbjuder möjligheter att producera t.ex. bioenergi och att återcirkulera näringsämnen till jordbruksmark.

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